Monday, September 01, 2014

Learning SDR

I recently launched Software Defined Radio with HackRF, an instructional video series that I hope will make it easier than ever for people to learn the basics of Software Defined Radio (SDR).

When I first learned to use SDR for my wireless security research, it was hard. At first I thought, "I can build radios out of software! I don't know anything about building radios, but I know software. Now with SDR I can build radios!" Unfortunately that wasn't quite true. I quickly learned that, even though I knew a thing or two about software, I knew nothing about Digital Signal Processing (DSP). I also learned that DSP is a lot more complicated than it seemed at first.

Fortunately I happened to be in the best possible place to learn SDR (electronics too) at the time. I was surrounded by RF engineers, and several of them were DSP experts. (I told this story in more detail during a panel discussion at the DEF CON 22 Wireless Village.) Even so, it took me a year or two before I was competent enough to build flexible SDR implementations that were useful for my research. As I finally achieved this goal, I started trying to help other people in the information security community learn to use the technology because I could see that there is no better tool for wireless security research, and especially for reverse engineering of radio signals, than SDR.

The first place I tried to do this was at Black Hat USA 2008. In my talk, Software Radio and the Future of Wireless Security I hoped to teach people the basics of SDR in less than an hour. I thought I could do something like "DSP in five minutes", but, as I developed the presentation, it turned out that I couldn't distill the essentials into such a small amount of time. The following year, Dominic Spill and I volunteered to give a two day SDR workshop at the first ToorCamp. We prepared some material, borrowed a little gear, and set out to teach people the practical skills of working with SDR. This effort was much better, but we had some problems. We only had enough equipment for three to six people, and about thirty showed up. We were in a hot desert full of volcanic ash that invaded all our gear. We had frequent power outages. Despite these challenges, we had a good time, and several people were able to learn some essential skills.

A few weeks later at DEF CON, Sergey Bratus convinced me to make a second attempt at the class in a more favorable setting. We happened to have the conversation while standing next to H1kari who offered a room at ToorCon San Diego, and I've been teaching there every year since then. I think we had five or six people that first year. It went quite well, but it was a challenge getting enough hardware together to allow everyone to fully participate. As the years went by, it became clear that the greatest barrier to entry was the hardware. My classes grew slowly, but they were attended primarily by people who already had SDR equipment. I was accomplishing my goal of teaching security folks about SDR, but I wasn't reaching very many people.

I had been kicking around the idea of trying to build a low cost SDR hardware platform for a long time. In fact, Project Ubertooth was originally intended to be an SDR platform. One of the primary reasons I was interested in building an SDR platform was to be able to provide something that my students could afford, something that could even be rolled into the cost of the class. It took a long time, but I eventually started the HackRF project and later completed HackRF One, an open source hardware platform for SDR. HackRF One is the most affordable general-purpose SDR transceiver in the world, and it allows more people than ever before to learn SDR.

These days I still teach at ToorCon, and I also often teach at other information security events including TROOPERS and Black Hat. The availability of HackRF (and rtl-sdr and more) has made SDR accessible to everyone in the security community and beyond. It is finally possible to bring SDR to a much wider audience, so I have started turning my course content into an online video series.

Software Defined Radio with HackRF is published under an open content license. As I continue to add more videos, I hope that it will become an even more thorough introduction to SDR than I am able to squeeze into a two day class. I hope that with this series and my in-person training, I have finally achieved my dream of making SDR easy to learn. Instead of taking a year, now people can spend a few days of fun experimentation and get started with this exciting technology.

56 comments:

Clayton Smith (argilo) said...

Thanks for everything! Your 2008 Black Hat presentation is what sparked my interest in SDR. A couple yours later I convinced my employer to get a USRP and I've been hooked ever since.

The availability of low-cost SDR hardware really seems to be bringing in a lot more people, and your videos should go a long way to getting them up to speed with GNU Radio. Keep up the great work!

Michael Ossmann said...

Thanks for your support, Clayton! I've been enjoying seeing your HackRF projects over the last few weeks.

Anonymous said...

Any news on the second shipment? Eagerly awaiting wimo to ship me my hackrf :-) also does the hackrf have any sort of protection on its input for static etc on antenna cable?

Anonymous said...

Hello,

today I watched your first GNU Radio tutorial. I build up the FM radio as shown in GRC. Because I'm waiting for my HackRF from the German sales point I use a RTL SDR.
I' m running Gnu radio on a Kali Linux USB stick OS.
In Gnu radio everything is working, but I dont get any audio and I have the feeling, gnu radio just shows me the center frequency, FFT shows no other signal peaks.

I sat the sample rate to 1M, because at higher levels I had a lot of overflow.

What I'm doing wrong?

It would be great to get feedback from you.
Many thanks

Best regards
Alexander

Ray said...

Mike, this series is terrific. As an now software/firmware engineer/manager who studied DSP in college, this helps to dust off some of the rust and makes very clear some of the fundamental concepts. You are a talented educator (and hardware designer) and it would have been so much easier to understand and visualize this field if anything like this series and hardware was available back in those days (mid 80's). Back then we had our college Prime computer and timeshare account with form feed bins. Am looking forward to the whole series. Do you have any outline yet to share as to what you are planning to cover? P.S. burst out laughing when you alluded to a need for 'the talk' when showing the sample type choices, concerning "complex" choice. Just ordered a HACK RF device, which is naturally on backorder already.

Mark Grennan said...

I can't thank you enough for you Learning SDR videos. Everone is a gold mind. Please continue to give exercises and suggested reading. I finished "Pratical Signal Processng" by Mark Owen this week.
The HackRF One is great. As soon as I get through the learning curve of GnuRadio I'm going to buy another. - W5TSU

Unknown said...

I can't wait to see all the following videos! I check for updates every day ;) This series is awesome, keep going!

Just received my HackRF last week and I can't stop playing around with it since^^

Dennis

Unknown said...

Hello Michael,

Your effort to produce these videos made my final decision to purchase the HackRF One.

Thanks a lot!

Cheers, Jaap

PS anything on xPSK planned? (Most or all samples on the web don't load in the latest 3.7.x versions of GNURadio companion.)

Mark Grennan said...

Lesion 7 is wonderful transition between complex numbers and DSP. I was having trouble connecting the two. Your jump right into demodulation was just what was needed.

Anonymous said...

The educational quality of the lectures in this series is really really excellent. Many sites on Internet talk about SDR, but, none give clear understand of things from basic concepts to practical things.

Michael is an awesome teacher. The lessons are extremely clear and helpful. After I started watching these lessons, I couldn't stop going on, and can't wait for more. Please, please, keep it coming.

Jorge De Castro said...

Hi Michael,

I had a big problem with the firmware update on the hackRF. I followed all the steps exactly like you did in your Lesson 5 video, but apparently something went wrong and the HackRF is now bricked...

I am desperate. I tried to restore it following the DFU mode procedure but after introducing this command:

dfu-util --device 1fc9:000c --alt 0 --download hackrf_one_usb_ram.dfu,

I get the following error:

dfuIDLE, continuing
DFU mode device DFU version 0100
Device returned transfer size 2048
DFU CRC does not match
Unsupported DFU file revision 0000

Can you help me? I dont know what to do and I am in panic. My HackRF cant be dead right?

Louisse said...

thank you for sharing it with us.. it is so helpful :)

Seattle Bankruptcy Lawyers

Unknown said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Unknown said...

Does someone know if there is a way to have time-stamping on HackRF? Moreover I need to have hackRF time-stamping referred to an external 10 MHz and to an external 1PPS.

Best regards

Piero, I0KPT

beh said...

What's the difference between the HackRF and the other SDR dongles.. AIRSPY , PortableSDR(PSDR), RTL2832U dongles (R820T/E4000), etc?

Do they all support the same software or should you pick the hardware based on the software / application you intend to use it for?

I'd like to capture my rf remote light switch and mimic the signal using a modified beagle bone!

Anonymous said...

Hello Mike: This is flora from Seeedstudio. I have emailed you on 16th. Dec which is about developing a business relationship with you.

Our company has great interest in your HackRF and would like to feature your product on our platform www.seeedstudio.com. If you got any interests in team up with us .please contact me: flora.tao@seeed.cc

Anonymous said...

Hello Mike: This is flora from Seeedstudio. I have emailed you on 16th. Dec which is about developing a business relationship with you.

Our company has great interest in your HackRF and would like to feature your product on our platform www.seeedstudio.com. If you got any interests in team up with us .please contact me: flora.tao@seeed.cc

Packetguy said...

Mike,
I'm amazed at what you've accomplished with HakRF One. Many have aspired to build a low-cost programmable platform, some have shipped alphas and betas, but no others have followed through with a plan to obtain funding and enter mass production. You're a brilliant example of the modern agile entrepreneur!

I'd like to buy a HackRF but they're out of stock everywhere. What can you tell us about the production process and lead times?

Anonymous said...

Update your webserver certificate, it expired today!

richy'sSDR said...

Hello, i really love what you do on SDR,i really need your, i am going to work on a project to generate GPS signals using software radio HackRF, sorry to be long, my questions:
-how generating a GPS signal with BPSK modulation and data?
-How to Then put attenuators to reduce the power ( around -130dBm ) and connect to a GPS receiver
-The idea is to see the receiver to acquire the GPS signal, and see the signal to noise ratio measured by the receiver
-Thereafter , introduce 3 or 4 other GPS signals and the receiver view the position of the receiver calculated
Thanks

Agen Bola Terpercaya said...

thank you for this article Agen bola terpercaya

Agen Bola said...

have a nice day all dear Agen Bola

Unknown said...

I admire the valuable information you offer in your articles. I will bookmark your blog and have my children check up here often. I am quite sure they will learn lots of new stuff here than anybody else!

Access Control Solutions

Chris Drake said...

Just finished lesson 11 - brilliant stuff!!! In earlier lessons, you promised a "future" episode covering the hardware, but so far that didn't come!?

Could you perhaps do a hardware lesson, or, link to something you've already recorded that goes over the hardware perhaps?

The main things I cannot comprehend so far: what the heck *is* a radio signal? How does the I and Q get recorded ? (the hardware makes 2 readings next to one another, right?). In my mind, I visualise an antenna as a tube full of marbles (electrons?); if you accelerate them, they make "ripples" in a 3-dimensional imaginary "pool" - wobble them back and forth to create radio - is that a sensible way to think of these things?

How can the HackRFone do "gigahertz" anything, when it's maximum sample rate is only in megahertz?

So many questions still - bring on lesson 12 !!!!!

Luciana Freitas said...

My friend, I'm sorry, my English is from Brazil, I'm starting to program, I'm 3 years old. Good morning friend wish you could help I'm having trouble having the exact frequency of a radio broadcast has how to pass me the site where there is an SDK where I have exactly the frequency at the peak when it is being transmitted thank you.

Derrick . C said...

Thank you very much for this blog.
hardware prototype development services

selaput dara buatan said...

obat kuat maxman
obat kuat obat kuat black ant africa
alat bantu sex pria vagina senter
boneka sex full body
alat bantu sex pria vagina pinggul
alat bantu sex pria vagina getar
celana hernia
alat bantu sex pria vagina manual
alat bantu sex wanita penis pretty love
viberator lidah

Twinkle said...

Nice post. It is really interesting. Thanks for sharing the post!
Web Design Company in Tuticorin
Domain Name Registration In India
Web Design Company In India
Digital Marketing Company in India
Bulk SMS Service Provider in India

Unknown said...

Thank for information, i like this.
please come to my website also.

Agen Judi Slot Casino Terpercaya

Judi Tembak Ikan
Daftar Slot Online
Ion Casino Club
Bandar Slot Online
Situs Live Casino

Join now!!! said...


NAGAQQ | AGEN BANDARQ | BANDARQ ONLINE | ADUQ ONLINE | DOMINOQQ TERBAIK

Yang Merupakan Agen Bandarq, Domino 99, Dan Bandar Poker Online Terpercaya di asia hadir untuk anda semua dengan permainan permainan menarik dan bonus menarik untuk anda semua

Bonus yang diberikan NagaQQ :
* Bonus rollingan 0.5%,setiap senin di bagikannya
* Bonus Refferal 10% + 10%,seumur hidup
* Bonus Jackpot, yang dapat anda dapatkan dengan mudah
* Minimal Depo 15.000
* Minimal WD 20.000

Memegang Gelar atau title sebagai AGEN BANDARQ Terbaik di masanya

Games Yang di Hadirkan NagaQQ :
* Poker Online
* BandarQ
* Domino99
* Bandar Poker
* Bandar66(NEW GAMES)

Info Lebih lanjut Kunjungi :
Website : NAGAQQ
WHATSAPP : +855967014811
Line : Cs_nagaQQ
TELEGRAM :+855967014811

BACA JUGA BLOGSPORT KAMI YANG LAIN:
berita nagaqq/
agen bandarq online/
Kemenangan NagaQQ/

Nenihwang said...


NAGAQQ | AGEN BANDARQ | BANDARQ ONLINE | ADUQ ONLINE | DOMINOQQ TERBAIK

Yang Merupakan Agen Bandarq, Domino 99, Dan Bandar Poker Online Terpercaya di asia hadir untuk anda semua dengan permainan permainan menarik dan bonus menarik untuk anda semua

Bonus yang diberikan NagaQQ :
* Bonus rollingan 0.5%,setiap senin di bagikannya
* Bonus Refferal 10% + 10%,seumur hidup
* Bonus Jackpot, yang dapat anda dapatkan dengan mudah
* Minimal Depo 15.000
* Minimal WD 20.000

Memegang Gelar atau title sebagai AGEN BANDARQ Terbaik di masanya

Games Yang di Hadirkan NagaQQ :
* Poker Online
* BandarQ
* Domino99
* Bandar Poker
* Bandar66(NEW GAMES)

Info Lebih lanjut Kunjungi :
Website : NAGAQQ
WHATSAPP : +855967014811
Line : Cs_nagaQQ
TELEGRAM :+855967014811

BACA JUGA BLOGSPORT KAMI YANG LAIN:
berita nagaqq/
agen bandarq online/
Kemenangan NagaQQ/

raylis.silana@gmail.com said...

Selamat Datang Di Situs AGEN BANDARQ

Rasakan sensasi serunya bermain di Situs AGEN BANDARQ
Yang Merupakan Agen Bandarq, Domino 99, Dan Bandar Poker Online Terpercaya di asia hadir untuk anda semua dengan permainan permainan menarik dan bonus menarik untuk anda semua.

Rasakan Sensasi serunya bermain di CrownQQ, Agen BandarQ Yang 100% Gampang Menang
Games Yang di Hadirkan CrownQQ :

=> Poker
=> Bandar Poker
=> Domino99
=> BandarQ
=> AduQ
=> Sakong
=> Capsa Susum
=> Bandar66 (ADU BALAK)
=> Perang Baccarat (New Game)

Promo Yang Berlaku Saat ini:

=> Bonus Refferal 20% ( OTOMATIS )
=> Bonus Turn Over 0,5% (SETIAP SENIN )
=> Minimal Depo Rp. 20.000,-
=> Minimal WD Rp. 20.000,-

Pelayanan dan Sistem Di Situs CROWNQQ :

=> 100% Member Asli Pemain vs Pemain ( NO ROBOT & ADMIN )
=> Pelayanan DP & WD 24 jam
=> Livechat Kami 24 Jam Online
=> Bisa Dimainkan Di Hp Android & IOS
=> Dilayani Dengan 5 Bank Terbaik

<< Contact_Us >>
WHATSAPP : +855882357563
LINE : CS CROWNQQ
TELEGRAM : +855882357563

BACA JUGA BLOGSPORT KAMI:
BLOG ARTIKEL
CROWNWIN
CERITA DEWASA

AKSES LINK TERBARU DI :
- RATUAJAIB.COM
- RATUAJAIB.NET
- RATUAJAIB.INFO

CROWNQQ | Agen BandarQ | BandarQ Online | AduQ Online | DominoQQ Terbaik

Nenihwang said...

NAGAQQ | AGEN BANDARQ | BANDARQ ONLINE | ADUQ ONLINE | DOMINOQQ TERBAIK

Yang Merupakan Agen Bandarq, Domino 99, Dan Bandar Poker Online Terpercaya di asia hadir untuk anda semua dengan permainan permainan menarik dan bonus menarik untuk anda semua

Bonus yang diberikan NagaQQ :
* Bonus rollingan 0.5%,setiap senin di bagikannya
* Bonus Refferal 10% + 10%,seumur hidup
* Bonus Jackpot, yang dapat anda dapatkan dengan mudah
* Minimal Depo 15.000
* Minimal WD 20.000

Memegang Gelar atau title sebagai AGEN BANDARQ Terbaik di masanya

Games Yang di Hadirkan NagaQQ :
* Poker Online
* Bandar Poker
* BandarQ
* Domino99
* AduQ
* Sakong
* Capsa Susun
* Bandar66 (ADU BALAK)
* Perang Baccarat (NEW GAMES)

Info Lebih lanjut Kunjungi :
Website : NAGAQQ
WHATSAPP : +855967014811
Line : Cs_nagaQQ
TELEGRAM :+855967014811

BACA JUGA BLOGSPORT KAMI YANG LAIN:
berita nagaqq/
agen bandarq online/
Kemenangan NagaQQ/

RuthStefanie10@gmail.com said...

CROWNQQ I AGEN BANDARQ I BANDARQ ONLINE I ADUQ ONLINE I DOMINOQQ TERBAIK

Yuk Buruan ikutan bermain di website Agen BandarQ

Sekarang CROWNQQ Memiliki Game terbaru Dan Ternama loh...

9 permainan :
=> Poker
=> Bandar Poker
=> Domino99
=> BandarQ
=> AduQ
=> Sakong
=> Capsa Susun
=> Bandar 66
=> Perang Baccarat (NEW GAME)

=> Bonus Refferal 20%
=> Bonus Turn Over 0,5%
=> Minimal Depo 20.000
=> Minimal WD 20.000
=> 100% Member Asli
=> Pelayanan DP & WD 24 jam
=> Livechat Kami 24 Jam Online
=> Bisa Dimainkan Di Hp Android
=> Di Layani Dengan 5 Bank Terbaik
=> 1 User ID 9 Permainan Menarik

Ayo gabung sekarang juga hanya dengan
mengklick daftar crownqq

Link Resmi CrownQQ:
RATUAJAIB.COM
RATUAJAIB.NET
RATUAJAIB.INFO

BACA JUGA BLOGSPORT KAMI:
BLOG ARTIKEL
CROWNWIN
CERITA DEWASA

Info Lebih lanjut Kunjungi :
WHATSAPP : +855882357563
LINE : CS CROWNQQ
TELEGRAM : +855882357563

Forummaster said...

ForumMaster | Forum Judi Online | Forum Judi Poker | Forum Judi Togel | Forum Judi Casino
Forummaster.xyz merupakan situs Forum Judi Online Indonesia Terpercaya & Terbaru Situs Bandar Online yang di Blacklist

Nenihwang said...

NAGAQQ | AGEN BANDARQ | BANDARQ ONLINE | ADUQ ONLINE | DOMINOQQ TERBAIK

Yang Merupakan Agen Bandarq, Domino 99, Dan Bandar Poker Online Terpercaya di asia hadir untuk anda semua dengan permainan permainan menarik dan bonus menarik untuk anda semua

Bonus yang diberikan NagaQQ :
* Bonus rollingan 0.5%,setiap senin di bagikannya
* Bonus Refferal 10% + 10%,seumur hidup
* Bonus Jackpot, yang dapat anda dapatkan dengan mudah
* Minimal Depo 15.000
* Minimal WD 20.000

Memegang Gelar atau title sebagai AGEN BANDARQ Terbaik di masanya

Games Yang di Hadirkan NagaQQ :
* Poker Online
* Bandar Poker
* BandarQ
* Domino99
* AduQ
* Sakong
* Capsa Susun
* Bandar66 (ADU BALAK)
* Perang Baccarat (NEW GAMES)

Info Lebih lanjut Kunjungi :
Website : NAGAQQ
WHATSAPP : +855967014811
Line : Cs_nagaQQ
TELEGRAM :+855967014811

BACA JUGA BLOGSPORT KAMI YANG LAIN:
berita nagaqq/
agen bandarq online/
Kemenangan NagaQQ/

Dinda Ayu said...

CROWNQQ I AGEN BANDARQ I BANDARQ ONLINE I ADUQ ONLINE I DOMINOQQ TERBAIK

Yuk Buruan ikutan bermain di website Agen BandarQ

Sekarang CROWNQQ Memiliki Game terbaru Dan Ternama loh...

9 permainan :
=> Poker
=> Bandar Poker
=> Domino99
=> BandarQ
=> AduQ
=> Sakong
=> Capsa Susun
=> Bandar 66
=> Perang Baccarat (NEW GAME)

=> Bonus Refferal 20%
=> Bonus Turn Over 0,5%
=> Minimal Depo 20.000
=> Minimal WD 20.000
=> 100% Member Asli
=> Pelayanan DP & WD 24 jam
=> Livechat Kami 24 Jam Online
=> Bisa Dimainkan Di Hp Android
=> Di Layani Dengan 5 Bank Terbaik
=> 1 User ID 9 Permainan Menarik

Ayo gabung sekarang juga hanya dengan
mengklick daftar crownqq

Link Resmi CrownQQ:
RATUAJAIB.COM
RATUAJAIB.NET
RATUAJAIB.INFO

BACA JUGA BLOGSPORT KAMI:
BLOG ARTIKEL
CROWNWIN
CERITA DEWASA

Info Lebih lanjut Kunjungi :
WHATSAPP : +855882357563
LINE : CS CROWNQQ
TELEGRAM : +855882357563

Fzseriesproduction said...

Thanks sir ! for this guidance. This post is helpful to me...
You can buy all industrial products and equipment from here,or contact us for <a href="http://optpeb.com>tensile structure and best Fabricators in lucknow</a>.

KIT said...

A very inspiring blog your article is so convincing that I never stop myself to say something about it.
Best Colleges for Computer Engineering | Biotechnology Colleges in Coimbatore
Best MBA Colleges in Coimbatore | Engg Colleges in Coimbatore

momimi said...

togel online
bandar togel terpercaya
agen togel
judi togel
Keluaran Togel
daftar togel

Kyra Queensha said...

PERMAINAN ONLINE TERBESAR DI INDONESIA

Website paling ternama dan paling terpercaya di Asia ^^
Sistem pelayanan 24 Jam Non-Stop bersama dengan CS Berpengalaman respon tercepat :)
Memiliki 9 Jenis game yang sangat digemari oleh seluruh peminat poker / domino

- Adu Q
- Bandar Q
- Bandar Sakong
- Bandar Poker a
- Poker
- Domino 99
- Capsa Susun
- BANDAR66
- PERANG BACCARAT (Games Terbaru)

Permainan Judi online yang menggunakan uang asli dan mendapatkan uang asli ^^

* Minimal Deposit : 20.000
* Minimal Withdraw : 20.000
* Deposit dan Withdraw 24 jam Non stop ( Kecuali Bank offline / gangguan )
* Bonus REFFERAL 15 % Seumur hidup tanpa syarata
* Bonus ROLLINGAN 0.3 % Dibagikan 5 hari 1 kali
* Proses Deposit & Withdraw PALING CEPAT
* Sistem keamanan Terbaru & Terjamin
* Poker Online Terpercayaa
* Live chat yang Responsive
* Mensupport 8 jenis bank lokal dan tersedia deposit via OVO dan PULSA TELKOMSEL serta XL


Contact Us
Website SahabatQQ
WA 1 : +85515769793
WA 2 : +855972076840
Telegram 1 :+85515769793
Telegram 2 : +855972076840
LINE : SAHABATQQ
FACEBOOK : SahabatQQ Reborn
daftar sahabatqq

#sahabatQQ
#winsahabatQQ
#winsahabat
#megasahabatQQ
#rajakartu99
#windaftar

Zoe said...

Your effort to produce these videos made my final decision to purchase the HackRF One.
personlized baby gifts
personlized gifts for her
personlized gifts for him

Malaivel Siddha Hospital said...



Wonderful post,This article have helped greatly continue writing... HIV I & II RNA PCR Quantitative-AIDS cure in India
Donate blood - Malaivel Trust AIDS cure 100% for siddha in India HIV,HSV,HbsAg Cure Treatment in India
VDRL complete cure for siddha in India HBSag complete cure for Herbal in india
HIV/AIDS Complete cure for siddha in India AIDS cure 100% for Ayurveda in India
HBSag complete cure for Ayurveda in india AIDS cure 100% for Herbal in India

Malaivel Siddha Hospital said...


Great post.thanks for sharing
HBSag complete cure for Ayurveda in india HIV/AIDS Complete cure for siddha in Tamilnadu
HIV/AIDS Complete cure test result in Tamilnadu HIV I & II RNA PCR Quantitative-AIDS cure in Tamilnadu
HBSag complete cure for siddha in Tamilnadu AIDS cure 100% for siddha in Tamilnadu
VDRL complete cure for siddha in Tamilnadu HIV/AIDS Complete cure for Ayurvedic in Tamilnadu
HBSag complete cure for Ayurvedic in Tamilnadu Herpes simplex virus complete cure in Tamilnadu

ravi kumar said...

Thanks for provide great informatic and looking beautiful blog, really nice required information & the things i never imagined and i would request, wright more blog and blog post like that for us. Thanks you once agian

birth certificate in delhi
name add in birth certificate
birth certificate in gurgaon
birth certificate correction
birth certificate in noida
birth certificate
birth certificate in ghaziabad
birth certificate in india
birth certificate apply online
birth certificate in bengaluru

Birth Certificate said...

Thanks for provide great informatic and looking beautiful blog, really nice required information & the things i never imagined and i would request, wright more blog and blog post like that for us. Thanks you once agian

death certificate in delhi
death certificate in bangalore
death certificate in mumbai
death certificate in faridabad
death certificate in gurgaon
death certificate in noida
duplicate driving licence delhi
death certificate online
death certificate
death certificate apply online

ravi said...

Thanks for provide great informatic and looking beautiful blog, really nice required information & the things i never imagined and i would request, wright more blog and blog post like that for us. Thanks you once agian

name change procedure in ghaziabad
name change procedure delhi
name change procedure gurgaon
name change in faridabad
name change in noida
name change
name change in india
name change procedure in bangalore
name change procedure in rajasthan
name change procedure in maharashtra

Malaivel Siddha Hospital said...


Wonderful post,This article have helped greatly continue writing... HIV I & II RNA PCR Quantitative-AIDS cure in India
Donate blood - Malaivel Trust AIDS cure 100% for siddha in India HIV,HSV,HbsAg Cure Treatment in India
VDRL complete cure for siddha in India HBSag complete cure for Herbal in india
HIV/AIDS Complete cure for siddha in India AIDS cure 100% for Ayurveda in India
HBSag complete cure for Ayurveda in india AIDS cure 100% for Herbal in India

Malaivel Siddha Hospital said...


Great post.thanks for sharing
HBSag complete cure for Ayurveda in india HIV/AIDS Complete cure for siddha in Tamilnadu
HIV/AIDS Complete cure test result in Tamilnadu HIV I & II RNA PCR Quantitative-AIDS cure in Tamilnadu
HBSag complete cure for siddha in Tamilnadu AIDS cure 100% for siddha in Tamilnadu
VDRL complete cure for siddha in Tamilnadu HIV/AIDS Complete cure for Ayurvedic in Tamilnadu
HBSag complete cure for Ayurvedic in Tamilnadu Herpes simplex virus complete cure in Tamilnadu

sara mohamed said...

شركة تنظيف منازل بجازان
شركة تنظيف منازل
شركة تنظيف بأبوعريش جازان
شركة تنظيف بأبوعريش
شركة تنظيف كنب بجازان
شركة تنظيف كنب
شركة عزل مسابح بجازان
شركة عزل مسابح
شركة عزل خزانات بجازان
شركة عزل خزانات
شركة عزل مسابح بجازان
شركة عزل مسابح
شركة عزل اسطح بجازان
شركة عزل اسطح
شركة مكافحة حشرات بجازان
شركة مكافحة حشرات
شركة تنظيف المجالس في جازان
شركة تنظيف المجالس
شركة تنظيف موكيت بجازان
شركة تنظيف موكيت
شركة تنظيف فلل بجازان
شركة تنظيف فلل
شركة تنظيف سجاد بجازان
شركة تنظيف سجاد
>>>>>>>>>>>>>.>>>>>>>>

Free Gift card to amazon said...

Watch Patriots Live
Watch Saints Live
Watch Seahawks Live
Watch Rams Live

SS Vermicompost Industry said...

Thanks for sharing such a great blog
Vermicompost manufacturers in Tamilnadu | Vermicompost in Tamilnadu
Vermicompost Manufacturers | Vermicompost Suppliers
Vermicompost in Coimbatore | Vermicompost manufacturers in Chennai
Vermicompost in chennai | Best Vermicompost in chennai

SS Vermicompost Industry said...

Thanks for sharing such a great blog
Vermicompost manufacturers in Tamilnadu | Vermicompost in Tamilnadu
Vermicompost Manufacturers | Vermicompost Suppliers
Vermicompost in Coimbatore | Vermicompost manufacturers in Chennai
Vermicompost in chennai | Best Vermicompost in chennai

tjproductstech said...


Hi, Very nice article. I hope you will publish again such type of post. Thank you!
Corporate gifts ideas | Corporate gifts
Corporate gifts singapore | Corporate gifts in singapore
Promotional gifts singapore | corporate gifts supplier

Free Gift card to amazon said...

The Pittsburgh Steelers Steelers Football Live are a professional NFL team based in Pittsburgh. You can watch Pittsburgh Steelers game live streaming online. Get the latest Pittsburgh Steelers schedule, TV channel, news update here.Steelers NFL Game Live
Steelers Game Today
Pittsburgh Steelers Game Live
Live Stream Steelers Game Today

Amelia Bethany said...

_*Before people said there is no cure on herpes virus but today many people have now believe that there is a cure.of herpes virus can be cured through Africans root and harms,and days our great doctors has finally found the cure of herpes virus many have get cured with the help of a great spell caster known as Dr.chala he is the one of the great spell doctor in Africa and he has the cure on this virus last month he share his Haber medicine in some medical hospital and now he is well recognize as one of the best spell caster in Africa, you don’t have to be sad any more or share your tears any more on this virus when the cure have already be found from Chala*_dr.chalaherbalhome@gmail.com or 🌿🌿🌿💃🏻https://
drchalaherbalhome.godaddysites.com