PoE allows a device to be powered by direct current (DC) running over an Ethernet cable that may also be used for communication. It is popular for VoIP telephones, IP security cameras, wireless access points and other network-connected devices that are commonly deployed at multiple locations within a building. There are several different ways that PoE has been implemented over the years, but most devices these days follow the IEEE 802.3at-2009 standard or its similar predecessor, IEEE 802.3af-2003. I looked at these standards and also at the most common non-standard implementations and found that they are all compatible with the Throwing Star LAN Tap.
Twisted pair Ethernet cables consist of eight wires arranged into four pairs. In some cases two of those pairs are unused. Each pair carries a differential signal with one wire carrying the inverse of the signal on the other wire; when one goes high, the other goes low. This is an alternating current (AC) signal.
The Throwing Star LAN Tap provides a DC path for all eight conductors between the target ports, J1 and J2, but it only extends a subset of those conductors to the monitoring ports, J3 and J4. This is done in such a way that Power over Ethernet on the target network can pass through the tap but does not extend to the monitoring ports. It's almost like I meant to do that. :-)